Workshop on Ion Exchange Membranes for Energy Applications – EMEA2017

26th – 28th June 2017 in Bad Zwischenahn (Germany)

More than 70 participants from 17 countries made the past EMEA-workshop in June 2016 a success. The EMEA2017 Workshop will now be the 5th workshop in this series. Material developments and ion exchange membrane based systems for energy applications will be discussed by representatives from research and industry with the focus set on anion exchange membranes. In addition to invited and contributed talks, the workshop features a panel discussion, in which participants from academia and industry discuss the development of the field. A poster exhibition offers scientists and especially young researchers and students the opportunity to present their work. A guided tour through the NEXT ENERGY research laboratories, a get-together and a conference dinner will provide additional opportunities for lively scientific exchange in a familiar atmosphere.

AGENDA

Monday June 26th

20:00 | Get-together

Tuesday June 27th

8:30 | Reception Desk Opens

9:00 | Welcome

9:15 | Session 1

       

 

 

 

Remaining challenges in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

Prof. Dario R. Dekel

The Wolfson Department of Chemical Engineering

The Nancy & Stephan Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP)
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology
dario@technion.ac.il

After a decade of development of Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEMFCs) we can now remark the substantial progress that has been made in improving the cell performance, mainly through development of new, highly conducting anion exchange membranes (AEMs) [1]. However, in spite of these remarkable advances, AEMFCs is still far from practical use. Among the main remaining challenges AEMFC technology should soon overcome to be considered a real power source alternative, are the ability to keep high cell performance while working with (A) ambient air, (B) non-PGM hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) electrocatalysts, and mainly, (C) to keep high cell performance during time.

Due to the unavailability of suitable electrocatalysts for the sluggish HOR, most of the AEMFC tests found in the literature are still based on Pt and Pt alloys as anode electrocatalyst. Recent work has proved for the first time that HOR not-Pt electrocatalysts can indeed exhibit high performance in operating AEMFCs [2-3]. Working with ambient air will mainly require to operate the cells at high current densities, in order to diminish the CO2 effect on the AEM [4]. Among all the remaining challenges in the AEMFC technology, performance stability is the most critical challenge [1, 5-6]. Recent advances in development of ex-situ techniques that enable cation stability measurement in environment that simulates the in-situ environment of an AEMFC in operation are now available [7-9]. We believe that these new methods to measure material stability will soon lead to the development of stable materials for durable AEMFCs.

[1] “Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems”; John R. Varcoe, Plamen Atanassov, Dario R. Dekel, Andrew M. Herring, Michael A. Hickner, Paul A. Kohl, Anthony R. Kucernak, William E. Mustain, Kitty Nijmeijer, Keith Scott, Tongwen Xu, and Lin Zhuang; Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 3135-3191, 2014.

[2] “Pd/Ni Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction in Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell”; Maria Alesker, Miles Page, Meital Shviro, Yair Paska, Gregory Gershinsky, Dario R. Dekel and David Zitoun; Journal of Power Sources 304, 332-339, 2016.

[3] “Pd/C-CeO2 anode catalyst for high performance platinum free anion exchange membrane fuel cells”; Hamish A. Miller, Alessandro Lavacchi, Francesco Vizza, Marcello Marelli , Francesco Di Benedetto, Francesco D’Acapito, Yair Paska, Miles Page and Dario R. Dekel; Angew. Chem. 128, 6108-6111, 2016.

[4] “Impact of carbonation processes in anion exchange membrane fuel cells”; Ulrike Krewer, Christine Weinzierl, Noga Ziv, and Dario R. Dekel, submitted to Electrochimica Acta, May 2017.

[5] “Imidazolium Cations with Exceptional Alkaline Stability: A Systematic Study of Structure−Stability Relationships”; Kristina M. Hugar, Henry A. Kostalik, IV and Geoffrey W. Coates; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 8730−8737, 2015.

[6] “Characterization and Chemical Stability of Anion Exchange Membranes Cross-Linked with Polar Electron-Donating Linkers”; Alina Amel, Sarah B. Smedley, Dario R. Dekel, Michael A. Hickner and Yair Ein-Eli; J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (9) F1047-1055, 2015.

[7] “The effect of water molecules in the alkaline stability of quaternary ammonium salts for anion exchange membranes for fuel cell applications”; Dario R. Dekel, Michal Amar, Sapir Willdorf, Monica Kosa, Shubhendu Dhara and Charles E. Diesendruck; Chem. Mater. 29, 4425-4431, 2017.

[8] “The critical relation between stability of functional groups and water in operational anion exchange membrane fuel cells”; Dario R. Dekel, Sapir Willdorf, Uri Ash, Michal Amar, Srdjan Pusara, Simcha Srebnik, and Charles Diesendruck; submitted to Journal of Power Sources, June 2017.

[9] “A convenient and realistic ex-situ method for determining the degradation rate of hydroxide-exchange-membranes (HEM) for  fuel cell applications”; Klaus-Dieter Kreuer and Patric Jannasch; EMEA2017 Workshop, Bad Zwischenahn, Germany, June 26-28, 2017.

Status of AMFC technology and Advances in NREL’s Perfluorinated Anion Exchange Membranes (PFAEM)

Bryan Pivovar, Andrew Park, Zbyslaw Owczarczyk, Ami C.C. Yang Neyerlin, Guido Bender, Hai Long, K.C. Neyerlin

National Renewable Energy Lab
15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO, 80401, USA
bryan.pivovar@nrel.gov

The alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) field continues to expand in interest. There have been a number of important advances including membrane chemical stability that is approaching the level required for commercial application (1), and membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) power output that has reached and even surpassed 1 W/cm2 (2). As the field has grown there have been a number of Workshops/Reports that have addressed the topic.  The speaker has been involved with organizing and preparing reports for 3 of these Workshops (2006, 2011, and 2016), and will present findings from the most recent Workshop Report highlighting areas of R&D advances and continuing R&D needs (3).

Additionally, work at NREL specific to the development of perfluorinated anion eschange membranes (PFAEM) will be highlighted.  While perfluorinated sulfonic acid polymer electrolytes (PFSAs) have been the standard material for proton eschange membrane fuel cells due to there high chemical stability/conductivity and there ability to be fabricated into high performance MEAs,  Standard commercial materials for AMFCs are not readily available.  Additionally, challenges with converting perfluorinated materials into anion exchange membranes are significant.  Our team has made significant strides in this area by improved understanding of synthesis conditions (including solubility challenges) and chemical stability.  An update on our current status will be presented.

  1. W.-H. Lee, Y. S. Kim and C. Bae, ACS Macro Lett., 4, 814 (2015).
  2. L. Wang, E. Magliocca, E. L. Cunningham, W. E. Mustain, S. D. Poynton, R. Escudero-Cid, M. M. Nasef, J. Ponce-Gonzalez, R. Bance-Souahli, R. C. T. Slade, D. K. Whelligan and J. R. Varcoe, Green Chemistry, 19, 831 (2017)
  3. http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/downloads/2016-alkaline-membrane-fuel-cell-workshop

10:15 | Poster Presentation and Coffee

10:45 | Session 2

Anion Exchange Blend Membranes (AEBMs)
from Poly(vinylbenzylchloride)

Dr. Jochen Kerres

ICVT – Institute for Chemical Process Engineering Stuttgart, Germany
University of Stuttgart
Böblinger Straße 78, 70199 Stuttgart

jochen.kerres@icvt.uni-stuttgart.de

In this study, synthesis and characterization of novel ionically and covalently cross‐linked Anion Exchange Blend Membranes (AEBMs) is described.

Following types of AEBMs were prepared:

  1. a) 4‐component AEBMs from polyvinylbenzylchloride (PVBCl) which were quaternized with the bulky tertiary amines tetramethylimidazole (TMIm) or pentamethylpiperidine (pempidine), a sulfonated polymer as the ionic cross‐linker, a polybenzimidazole as the mechanically stabilizing matrix polymer, and polyethylenglycolediepoxide (PEGDE) as a hydrophilic microphase
  2. b) 2‐component AEBMs from PVBCl being quaternized with a sidechain prepared from N,N,N′,N′‐ Tetramethyl‐1,6‐hexanediamine (1,6‐TMHDA) and1,6‐diiodohexane (1,6‐DIH) (molar proportion 1,6‐TMHDA/1,6‐DIH=2/1 or 4/1) blended with varying amounts of PBIOO

The membranes were posttreated in 1M KOH at 90°C for 10 days and longer (one of the membranes was soaked in the alkaline solution for even 30 days) to investigate their alkaline stability. The membranes were characterized before and after alkaline treatment in terms of Cl‐ conductivity (by impedance spectroscopy in dependence of temperature from room temperature up to 90°C at a r. h. of 90%), thermal stability (by thermogravimetry), and gel content (by extraction with 90°C hot DMAc).

The type a) TMIm‐quaternized membranes showed the better alkaline stabilities the higher the anionexchange polymer content of the blend was. Cl‐ conductivities in excess of 70 mScm‐1 at room temperature were obtained. The best of the investigated AEBMs possessed a conductivity decrease of only 15% after 30 days of KOH treatment. The conductivities of the partially fluorinated blend membranes were generally lower at the same calculated ion‐exchange capacity than those of the nonfluorinated ones. The molecular weight of the PEGDE blend component did not play a role for the ionic conductivity: the membranes containing PEGDE with a molecular weight of 500 Da showed the same conductivity as PEGDE with a molecular weight of 6,000 Da. The thermal stability of the membranes was investigated in detail by TGAFTIR coupling, and it was indicated that thermal degradation starts in the 250°C range. Interestingly enough, an AEBM which has been quaternized with pempidine showed a strong conductivity increase upon KOH treatment: while the Cl‐ conductivity before KOH was 1.7 mScm‐1, a strong rise of conductivity after 30d of KOH was observed, reaching a value of 22 mScm‐1. This conductivity rise is not understood up to now and needs further investigation.

The type b) membranes showed the same alkaline stability trend as the a) membranes: that membrane without added PBIOO possessed the best alkaline stability among the investigated membranes: the membrane without PBIOO lost about 15% of its conductivity after 10d of KOH treatment, while the membrane with 40% PBIOO suffered from 88% conductivity decrease during the same time period.

Anion Exchange Membranes in Fuel Cells

Alina Amel, Chaya Ben-Yehuda, Miles Page

PO-CELLTECH
Caesarea,Israel
alina.amel@pocelltech.com

As the worldwide demand for clean energy conversion technologies and renewable energy systems continues to grow, the race to decarbonize the consumer automotive industry is starting to take centre stage, and battery-electric vehicles (including all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles) have made significant market inroads.

Meanwhile, production-scale Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCEV’s) have finally hit the roads in selected regions. FCEV’s have some natural advantages over battery vehicles – most significantly, the ability to decouple vehicle range from the size of the device, and the ability to “refuel” in a few minutes rather than much longer battery charging times. However, if they are to be commercially successful there are critical factors that need to be overcome including the cost of the fuel cell engine and the means and cost of production and distribution of hydrogen gas.

Significant cost barriers limit the market potential of Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM) fuel cells including high manufacturing and material costs, especially, large amounts of platinum required in the electrocatalyst and costly fluorinated polymer membranes. Fuel Cells based on Hydroxide Exchange Membranes (HEM) provide significant potential to alleviate these key cost barriers – most especially the ability to work with non-platinum catalysts and low-cost hydrocarbon membranes – while maintaining key attractive characteristics of PEM fuel cells including power density, low temperature (<100°C) and good response to dynamic power outputs demanded in powering an automobile.

Power densities of modern lab-scale HEM fuel cells approach that of PEM systems, with several groups reporting peak power densities of greater than 1 W/cm2. However, touted cost benefits remain largely hypothetical due to several factors, one of which is the absence of commercialized alkaline membranes that meet the very strong demands of automotive conditions.

Other challenges, includinge catalytic activity and sensitivity of the cell to CO2, as well as associated complex water managment, must also be considered. Here we review the progress and remaining obstacles to commercialization of the HEM fuel cell system.

 

 

Alkaline Stability and H2/O2 Fuel Cell Durability of Anion Exchange Membrane

Nanwen Li,* Lei Liu, Jiayou Liao, Yingda Huang

State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, 030001, China.

*E-mail of the Corresponding Author: linanwen@sxicc.ac.cn

This report addresses issues surrounding the design of highly durable anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for alkaline fuel cells. Despite intensive research effort in the search for higher performing,[1] and more versatile AEMs, the role of polymer architecture on both chemical and electrochemical durability of the membrane and on properties such as conductivity, and water content, fuel cell durability are still poorly understood.[2] A intensively comparative investigation of traditional, comb-shaped, side-chain-type, or comb-shaped side-chain-type quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene)s (PPO)s, prepared by Cu(I) catalyzed click reaction has been carried out. These copolymers possess similar composition but considerably different molecular architecture, the nature of which significantly altered their properties and device performance. Hydroxide conductivity was significantly improved for the side-chain-type (40.6 mS/cm at 20 °C with IEC=1.80 meq/g), long side-chain-type (38.7 mS/cm with IEC=1.67 meq/g) as well as comb-shaped membranes possessing a C-18 alkyl terminal pendant (26.0 mS/cm with IEC=1.36 meq/g) compared to that of BTMA-x (26.4 mS/cm with IEC=2.04 meq/g) and comb-shaped sampleswith a short alkyl chain (15.2 mS/cm with IEC=1.85 meq/g). In chemical stability experiments under 10 M NaOH and 80 °C for 200 hours,longside-chain-type and samples with a C-18 alkyl terminal pendant architecture showed less decrease in conductivity (~10 %) than the control, side-chain-type  and  polymers having short alkyl chains, which retained 5 %-52 % conductivity after alkaline stability testing. Significant degradation was observed for the unstable PPO AEM samples by either SN2 substitution or Hoffmann elimination according to 1H NMR analysis. The comb-shaped AEMs having a long alkyl chains had not initial performance, e.g. no open circuit voltage (OCV). It is assumed that the polystyrene polymer backbone may have helped to build a more efficient phase boundary between the catalyst layer and membrane probably resulted from the high water uptake though a more complete study would be needed to explain this phenomenon. Interestingly, the fuel cell device performance provided counterintuitive data that showed longer side chains with excellent alkaline stability were not superior in device function assessment. Specifically,the highly alkaline stable long side-chain-type  membrane showed significant decreases in a fuel cell device with an operating lifetime of 200 min at 100 mA/cm2. In contrast, the typical BTMA-30 membranes with poor alkaline membrane stability showed good durability in a working device during 500 min operation.

 

Acknowledgements

The financial supports from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21474126 and 21504101), the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and are greatly appreciated

References

  • Li, N.; Leng, Y.; Hickner, M. A.; Wang, C.-Y. Am. Chem. Soc.2013, 135, 10124-10133.
  • Li, M. D. Guiver, Macromolecules 2014, 47, 2175-2198.

12:15 | Lunch

13:45 | Guided Tour through the NEXT ENERGY Laboratories

16:00 | Session 3

Enduring Polybenzimidazolium Anion-Exchange Membranes

Benjamin Britton, Andrew Wright, Thomas Weissbach, Timothy J. Peckham, and Steven Holdcroft*

Simon Fraser University, Department of Chemistry
8888 University Dr., Burnaby BC  Canada V5A-1S6
*to whom correspondence should be addressed: holdcrof@sfu.ca

Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells have become a topic of substantial interest in recent years, opening up a new electrochemical environment for hydrogen fuel cells. Facile kinetics for the oxygen reduction reaction open the promise of non-PGM or even non-metal AEMFCs. The most challenging aspect for the field, as defined by the 2016 DOE AMFC Workshop, is membrane and ionomer stability in alkaline conditions at elevated operating temperatures. Few papers report convincing endurance data, and best practices for in situ fuel cell conditioning and electrochemical characterization are still being developed by the community.

Here, we report that sterically-stabilized polybenzimidazole-based membranes and ionomers exhibit exceptional stability in situ, and are sufficient durable to facilitate investigation of novel catalysts. These fuel cells demonstrate re-equilibration from extensive carbonation and complete re-conditioning in shut-down / start-up cycles. We further report operation in typically challenging conditions, e.g., increased temperature and reduced humidity. Finally, we report on our attempts to define best-practices for electrochemical characterization.

Extended-Resonance Stabilization of Anion Exchange Membranes

Yu Seung Kim,1 Sandip Maurya, 1 Kwan-Soo Lee, 1  Cy Fujimoto2

1 Los Alamos National Laboratory
MPA-11: Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices Group
yskim@lanl.gov

2 Sandia National Laboratory
Organic Materials Science

The chemical stability of anion exchange membrane is one of the most critical requirements for alkaline membrane fuel cells. While some developed quaternary ammonium functionalized polyaromatics showed good chemical stability under high pH conditions, there are further needs to develop alternative cationic group tethered anion exchange membranes. One of the approaches to enhance the chemical stability of the anion exchange membranes is introducing electron conjugated structure into cationic functional group. In this presentation, we will discuss the impact of the resonance structure on alkaline stability using non-conjugated sulfonyl guanidinium, partly conjugated benzyl guanidinium and extended conjugated phenyl guanidinium functionalization (Figure 1). We will demonstrate the stability of an extended-resonance stabilized anion exchange membrane and compare the stability with state-of-the-art hexamethyl ammonium functionalized poly(phenylene). The extended-resonance stabilization approach can be implemented into other alternative cationic groups where high alkaline stability is required.

Figure 1. Conjugated structure of guanidinium.

 References

  1. Fujimoto, C.; Kim, D. S.; Hibbs, M.; Wrobleski, D.; Kim, Y. S., J Membrane Sci 2012, 423, 438.
  2. Kim, D. S.; Labouriau, A.; Guiver, M. D.; Kim, Y. S., Chem Mater 2011, 23 (17), 3795.
  3. Kim, D. S.; Fujimoto, C. H.; Hibbs, M. R.; Labouriau, A.; Choe, Y. K.; Kim, Y. S., Macromolecules 2013, 46 (19), 7826.

Design, synthesis, and application of base-stable cations in anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells

Kristina M. Hugar

Ecolectro, Inc.
526 Campus Rd., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
kmh@ecolectro.com

Fuel cells convert the energy stored in chemical bonds into electrical energy to do useful work. Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) possess high energy density, emit few by-products, have high efficiency, have uninterrupted power generation and enable the use of non-PGM catalysts. Incorporating cations that are resistant to degradation into inert polymer architectures is required for effective AEMs. Designing methods that accurately characterize the stability properties will reduce the resources needed to achieve these goals.

Ecolectro is commercializing a platform of polymers that originated at Cornell University for use in electrochemical devices, including alkaline fuel cells. The design, synthesis, and characterization of AEMs that are 1) obtained from pre-functionalized monomers 2) non-aromatic and hydrocarbon-based and/or 3) contain well characterized base-stable organic cations are described herein.

We synthesized a tetrakis(dialkylamino)phosphonium functionalized monomer and polymerized with Grubbs’ 2nd generation catalyst.1 After hydrogenation with Crabtree’s catalyst, the polymer was polyethylene-like with phosphonium cations covalently linked to the backbone. The polymer exhibited hydroxide conductivity of 22 mS/cm (22 °C). After storing strips of the polymer membrane in caustic alkaline solutions (1 M KOH @ 80 °C or 15 M KOH @ 22 °C), the conductivity remained unchanged for 22 and 138 days, respectively.

A 1H NMR spectroscopy protocol was developed to quantitatively assess the stability of organic cations under alkaline conditions.2 Methanol-d3 was selected to dissolve organic species and to eliminate a hydrogen/deuterium exchange process. The solutions were stored in flame-sealed NMR tubes and heated to 80 °C. Several cations proposed in AEMs were analyzed over 30 days and degradation products were identified with 1H NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

A series of imidazolium cations with varying substituents were tested for alkaline stability.3 Aryl substituents at the C2 position were most effective at preventing degradation and placing methyl groups at the C4 and C5 positions improved stability. Long chain alkyl groups were the most effective at hindering reactions with hydroxide and methoxide. Ultimately, we achieved imidazolium cations that were completely resistant to degradation for 30 days at 1 M, 2 M, and 5 M KOH concentrations, in methanol-d3 at 80 °C.

(1) Noonan, K. J. T.; Hugar, K. M.; Kostalik, H. A.; Lobkovsky, E. B.; Abruña, H. D.; Coates, G. W. Phosphonium-functionalized polyethylene: A new class of base-stable alkaline anion exchange membranes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 18161–18164.

(2) Hugar, K. M.; Kostalik, H. A.; Coates, G. W. Imidazolium cations with exceptional alkaline stability: A systematic study of structure–stability relationships. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 8730–8737.

(3) Hugar, K. M.; Coates, G. W. Protocol for the quantitative assessment of organic cation stability for polymer electrolytes. Macromolecules, 2017, Submitted.

17:10 | Poster Presentation and Coffee

17:30 | Session 4

Tailoring the membrane│electrode interface: A review and perspective of novel engineering approaches

Matthias Breitwieser, Matthias Klingele, Severin Vierrath, Roland Zengerle, and Simon Thiele

Hahn-Schickard Gesellschaft für angewandte Forschung e.V.
Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
matthias.breitwieser@Hahn-Schickard.de

The interface between the catalyst layer (CL) and the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in a fuel cell has significant impact onto its electrochemical performance [1]. In consequence, in the past years there have been growing research activities to engineer this interface in order to improve the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). This talk summarizes these approaches and compares the various techniques. Based on the available fuel cell data in literature we provide a quantitative comparison of relative improvements caused by specially 3D-engineered PEM|CL interfaces. This allows to draw several conclusions: We show that the similar improvements of relevant electrochemical properties such as improved high and low frequency resistances as well as higher peak power density can be achieved by 3D PEM|CL interface engineering techniques. As an example, regardless if patterned membrane surfaces [2], ionomer gradients in the catalyst layer [3] or direct membrane deposition techniques [4] are used, comparable improvements of the fuel cell characteristics were reported. Second, for patterned membranes surfaces it was found that feature sizes of about 1-10 µm on the membrane surface seem to result in the most significant power density improvement (see Figure 1). Finally it is shown that a re-engineered PEM│CL interface can also contribute to extend the durability of the MEA due to enhanced adhesion and contact between both functional layers.

Figure 1: Comparison of the power density improvement vs. the CL/PEM surface area increase (left) and vs. the membrane pattern size (right)

References

[1]      B.S. Pivovar, Y.S. Kim, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154 (2007) B739.

[2]      J.K. Koh, Y. Jeon, Y.I. Cho, J.H. Kim, Y.-G. Shul, J. Mater. Chem. A 2 (2014) 8652.

[3]      Zhong Xie, Titichai Navessin, Ken Shi, Robert Chow, Qianpu Wang, Datong Song, Bernhard Andreaus, Michael Eikerling, Zhongsheng Liu, and Steven Holdcroft, Journal of The Electrochemical Society 152 (2005) A1171-A1179.

[4]                  M. Klingele, M. Breitwieser, R. Zengerle, S. Thiele, J. Mater. Chem. A 3 (2015) 11239–11245.

Challenges and solutions in the R2R manufacturing of ion exchange membranes

Dr. Martin Busch1, Thomas Kolbusch1, Dr. Klaus Crone1, Dr. Nico Meyer1

 1Coatema Coating Machinery GmbH, Dormagen, Germany.

Uniform and stable membranes are in many applications the most critical part for efficient and reliable operation. Due to the challenging multi-step process, the manufacturing technology for ion exchange and micro filtration membranes from mass production requires deep expertise and experience. Especially the low-cost high-throughput production needs uniform coating, smooth dipping and drying to be designed for a constant high-quality result. During the recent years intense research and development has been directed on the enhancement and safe implementation of these critical production steps.

The author provides an overview on the roll-to-roll impregnation, casting, coating, membrane coagulation, dipping and washing, drying and encapsulation processes. Subsequently, an insight into the practical realization of the manufacturing is presented. Latest updates in coating and drying technology and exemplary results are discussed.

A deeper look is taken into precise and uniform casting and impregnation, continuous and interrupted slot die coating, careful membrane coagulation and washing and smooth drying and crosslinking technologies. Practical experiences and specific issues are addressed in order to share lessons learned and implemented solutions.

18:30 | Break

19:00 | Conference Dinner

Wednesday June 28th

9:00 | Session 5

Polymers functionalised with aliphatic mono- and spirocyclic quaternary ammonium cations for anion exchange membranes

Joel S. Olsson, Thanh Huong Pham, Hai-Son Dang, Patric Jannasch

Department of Chemistry, Lund University,
P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
patric.jannasch@chem.lu.se

Different approaches to anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are currently intensively investigated with the aim to develop materials for application in electrochemical energy devices such as alkaline fuel cells and electrolysers.1 One of the major challenges is to identify feasible synthetic strategies to AEM materials with sufficient long-term chemical and thermal stability. Studies of different small cationic model compounds have revealed that aliphatic mono- and spirocyclic quaternary ammonium (QA) cations have a very high alkaline stability, most probably because the constrained ring conformations increase the transition state energy of the degradation reactions.2

Our research group has previously reported on the functionalisation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) with different QA cations attached via flexible alkyl spacers.3 Recently, we have also studied PPO tethered with various cyclo-aliphatic QA cations. The results indicated that pyrrolidinium and piperidinium displayed excellent stability (1 M NaOH, 90 °C), while larger rings without severe conformational constraints (azepanium) and rings containing additional heteroatoms (morpholinium) readily degraded under the same conditions. In addition, we have investigated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s functionalised with bis-N-spirocyclic QA moieties along the backbone.4 AEMs based on these polymers reached high OH conductivity, but were found to degrade under alkaline conditions at elevated temperatures. This motivated us to design and synthesize alternative N-spirocyclic structures based on poly(N,N-diallylazacycloalkane)s5 and N-spirocyclic quaternary ammonium ionenes6 (“spiro-ionenes”), respectively, all without any chemically sensitive ether bridges. The approach significantly improved the stability of this novel class of materials. In the current presentation we will discuss molecular design principles, synthetic procedures and important structure-property relationships of these new AEM materials.

  1. J. R. Varcoe, P. Atanassov, D. R. Dekel, A. M. Herring, M. A. Hickner, P. A. Kohl, A. R. Kucernak, W. E. Mustain, K. Nijmeijer, K. Scott, T. W. Xu and L. Zhuang, Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, 7, 3135.
  2. M. G. Marino, K. D. Kreuer, ChemSusChem, 2015, 8, 5133.
  3. (a) H. S. Dang, E. A. Weiber, P. Jannasch, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015, 3, 5280; (b) H. S. Dang, P. Jannasch, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 11924; (c) H. S. Dang, P. Jannasch, Macromolecules, 2015, 48, 5742; (d) H. S. Dang, P. Jannasch, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 17138.
  4. T. H. Pham, P. Jannasch, ACS Macro Lett., 2015, 4, 1370.
  5. J. S. Olsson, T. H. Pham, P. Jannasch, Macromolecules, 2017, 50, 2784
  6. T. H. Pham, J. S. Olsson, P. Jannasch, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139, 2888.

Further developments in radiation-grafted
anion-exchange polymer electrolytes

John Varcoe, Julia Ponce-González, Lianqin Wang, Rachida Bance-Soualhi, Ana-Laura Gonçalves Biancolli, Elisabete Inacio Santiago, Imad Ouachan, Jethro Brinks, Wai Hin Lee, Daniel Whelligan

Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey
Guildford, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom
j.varcoe@surrey.ac.uk

In previous EMEA meetings, the concept of using radiation-grafting to produce anion-exchange polymer electrolytes (membranes and powder ionomers) has been discussed. Such materials are being developed for application in Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEMFCs) and membrane-based Alkaline Water Electrolysers (AEM-AWE).1 Radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes (RG-AEM) and anion-exchange powder ionomers (RG-AEI) were previously developed using partially-fluorinated poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) starting materials.2,3

This presentation will discuss the following recent developments:

  • The production of RG-AEMs using low density polyethylene (LDPE) as the starting material, rather than ETFE, to produce RG-AEMs with better mechanical properties;
  • Optimisation of the ETFE-based RG-AEI powders used in the electrodes of AEMFCs;
  • More insights into alkali degradation of AEMs containing benzyltrimethylammonium and N-methylpyrrolidinium functional group chemistries.
  • The optimisation of Raman cross-sectional mapping of RG-AEMs.

Figure 1 H2/O2 AEMFC performances at 80°C containing both an ETFE-based (red squares) and an LDPE-based (green circles) RG-AEM: PtRu/C anodes, Pt/C cathodes (both 0.4 mg cm-2 Pt loadings).

1 J. R. Varcoe, P. Atanassov, D. R. Dekel, A. M. Herring, M. A. Hickner, P. A. Kohl, A. R. Kucernak, W. E. Mustain, K. Nijmeijer, K. Scott, T. Xu, L. Zhuang, “Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems”, Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 3135 (2014).

2 L. Wang, E. Magliocca, E. L. Cunningham, W. E. Mustain, S. D. Poynton, R. Escudero-Cid, M. M. Nasef, J. Ponce-Gonzalez, R. Bance-Souahli, R. C. T. Slade, D. K. Whelligan, J. R. Varcoe, “An optimised synthesis of high performance radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes”, Green Chem., 19, 831 (2017).

3 J. Ponce-Gonzalez, D. K. Whelligan, L. Wang, R. Bance-Soualhi, Y. Wang, Y. Peng, H. Peng, D. C. Apperley, H. N. Sarode, T. P. Pandey, A. G. Divekar, S. Seifert, A. M. Herring, L. Zhuang, J. R. Varcoe, “High performance aliphatic-heterocyclic benzyl-quaternary ammonium radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes”, Energy Environ. Sci., 9, 3724 (2016).

Anion Exchange Membranes Composed of Perfluoroalkyl Main Chain and Pendant Ammonium Groups

Kenji Miyatake, Hideaki Ono, Taro Kimura, Junpei Miyake, Junji Inukai, Makoto Uchida

Clean Energy Research Center
4 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008510, Japan
miyatake@yamanashi.ac.jp

Anion exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted as the next generation fuel cells because of potential use of non-precious metal catalysts. Major technical issues associated with anion exchange membrane fuel cells are membranes. While considerable efforts have been consumed to develop better-performing anion exchange membranes, the existing membranes are still not as conductive and stable as proton exchange membranes. We have worked on the issues in the last decade mainly focusing on ammonium-functionalized aromatic-based polymers.1 We reported in last year’s workshop that the absence of heteroatom linkages such as ether, sulfide, and sulfone in the polymer main chains was effective in improving the alkaline stability of AEMs.2 In particular, introducing perfluoroalkyl groups gave the ammonium-functionalized aromatic copolymers with good membrane forming capability and bendability.3 Other advantages of introducing perfluoroalkyl groups into the polymer main chain include solubility in common solvents such as methanol. However, trimethylbenzylammonium groups degraded under severe alkaline conditions. It has been reported in the literature that interstitial aliphatic segments between the polymer main chains and the onium groups improved the alkaline stability of AEMs.4 However, in other cases, the pendant ammonium groups were less stable than the trimethylammonium groups.5 The effect of the spacer aliphatic groups on the alkaline stability of AEMs still seems in controversy.

In the present paper, we report a novel class of AEMs composed of perfluoroalkyl main chains and pendant ammonium groups. The effect of interstitial aliphatic groups on the properties (in particular, alkaline stability) and fuel cell performance of partially fluorinated AEMs will be discussed.

  1. Miyake, M. Watanabe, K. Miyatake, Polym. J., 46, 656-663 (2014).
  2. https://www.next-energy.de/en/research-areas/fuel-cells/fuel-cells-workshops/emea2016/#1466160140847-3bbc25b5-6b53
  3. Ono, J. Miyake, S. Shimada, M. Uchida, K. Miyatake, J. Mater. Chem. A, 3, 21779-21788 (2015).
  4. H. Lee, A. D. Mohanty, C. Bae, ACS Macro Lett., 4, 453–457 (2015).
  5. Parrondo, M. J. Jung, Z. Wang, C. G. Arges, J. Electrochem. Soc., 162, F1236–F1242 (2015).

10:30 | Poster Presentation and Coffee

11:00 | Panel Discussion

  • Moderation:
    Dr. Alexander Dyck
    (NEXT ENERGY, Germany)

 12:15 | Lunch

13:45 | Session 6

Advanced alkaline water electrolysis using ternary polybenzimidazole-based electrolytes

David Aili1, Mikkel Rykær Kraglund1, Andrew Wright2, Steven Holdcroft2, Marcelo Carmo3 and Jens Oluf Jensen1

1 Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet 207, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
2 Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

3 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-3: Electrochemical Process Engineering, Jülich, Germany

larda@dtu.dk

Polybenzimidazole membranes equilibrated in aqueous KOH form ternary electrolyte systems that combine the mechanical robustness and gas-tightness of the polymer with the conductive properties of the aqueous alkaline salt solution.1, 2 This makes it particularly suitable as electrolyte in advanced alkaline water electrolyzers. Based on this approach we have obtained performances comparable to state-of-the-art perfluorosulfonic acid-based systems, with cells made entirely of cheap and abundant materials.

Poly(2,2’-(m-phenylene)-5,5’-bibenzimidazole) (m-PBI), which is a commercially available polybenzimidazole derivative, has been extensively studied for this purpose during the last few years. Unfortunately, membranes based on m-PBI severely degrades in aqueous KOH as evidenced by gradually decreasing molecular weight.

This contribution describes a degradation mitigation strategy where m-PBI is substituted with a sterically protected polybenzimidazole derivative, poly(2,2’-(m-mesitylene)-5,5’-bibenzimidazole) (mes-PBI, Figure 1).3 The membranes based on mes-PBI are extensively characterized and compared with m-PBI, showing improved chemical stability in the lower KOH concentration range.4

Figure 1 The chemical structure of mes-PBI in the neutral pristine form (left) and in the potassium poly(benzimidazolide) form (right).

 

1 D. Aili, K. Jankova, J. Han, N.J. Bjerrum, J.O. Jensen and Q. Li, Polymer 2016, 84, 304-310.

2 M.R. Kraglund, D. Aili, K. Jankova, E. Christensen, Q. Li, J.O. Jensen, J. Electrochem. Soc. 2016, 163, F3125-F3131.

3 O.D. Thomas, K.J.W.Y. Soo, T.J. Peckham, M.P. Kulkarni, S. Holdcroft, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 10753-10756.

4 D. Aili, A.G. Wright, M.R. Kraglund, K. Jankova, S. Holdcroft, J.O. Jensen, J. Mater. Chem. A 2017, 5, 5055-5066.

Nanostructured FeCoSiB Alloy as a promising catalyst for water electrolysis in an alkaline environment

Karel Bouzek, Jaromír Hnát, Christian Immanuel Müller1, Martin Ďurovič, Martin Paidar, Thomas Rauscher2, Lars Röntzsch1,
University of Chemistry and Technology in Prague
Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
bouzekk@vscht.cz

1Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM,
Branch Lab Dresden, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany

2Technische Universität Dresden, Institute for Materials Science, Dresden, Germany

Alkaline water electrolysis represents an important part of the future vision of the hydrogen economy as a mean to overcome problems connected with intermittency in the power output of the renewable energy sources. This intermittency endangers seriously stability of the energy distribution grid as well as reliability of the energy supply. Although alkaline water electrolysis is considered as a well-established and reliable technology, new challenges connected with its integration to the distribution grid as a stabilizing element require further intensive development. It includes both, electrolyte as well as electrodes optimization. Within this study nanostructured FeCoSiB alloy is studied as a promising cathodic hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst and electrode construction material.

The Fe60Co20Si10B10 alloy used during this study was prepared via gas atomizing process (NANOVAL-Berlin). The resulting material was produced in a powder form. It was subsequently milled for 8 hours in order to obtain particles with an average diameter of 17.8 µm. Powder prepared was fixed on the surface of the Ni foam fulfilling the role of the porous support layer. Optimization of the deposition method, as well as catalyst loading was performed in order to obtain highest electrolysis cell performance. An inseparable part of this endeavor is activation of the Fe60Co20Si10B10 catalyst. Three different methods were tested in order to accomplish this task: (i) chemical etching in the KOH solution, (ii) potential cycling in the KOH solution and (iii) voltage cycling in the electrolysis cell. SEM, XRD, XPS, cyclic voltammetry, linear polarization and testing in laboratory scale alkaline water electrolyser coupled with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the catalyst prior and after activation and/or electrolysis. Results obtained indicate the properly activated Fe60Co20Si10B10 to represent promising material showing very good electrocatalytic activity as well as long term stability under conditions of alkaline water electrolysis.

Acknowledgement

Financial support of this study by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic (FV10529) and by the German Research Foundation (DFG KI 516/24-1) is gratefully acknowledged.

15:15 | Poster Presentation and Coffee

15:45 | Session 7

Mesoscale Simulations of Anion Exchange Membranes

Stephen J. Paddison,1 Fatemeh Sepehr,1 Hongjun Liu,1 Xubo Luo,1 Chulsung Bae,2 Mark E. Tuckerman,3 Michael A. Hickner 4

1Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, U.S.A.
spaddison@utk.edu

2Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, New York State Center for Polymer Synthesis Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, U.S.A.

3Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York City, NY 10003, U.S.A.

4 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, U.S.A.

 

Anion exchange membranes (AEM) are currently under investigation for their application in energy conversion devices.1,2 Main challenges in currently available AEMs include chemical stability and low ionic conductivity. Rather than increasing the ion exchange capacity, a realistic strategy to enhance the conductivity is to use phase segregated AEMs.3 Hence, the morphology of the ionomer is an important property in to achieve high performance. However, there is still a lack of fundamental understanding of how ionomer morphology determines ion transport.4 Recently, researchers have reported elastomeric AEMs exhibiting satisfactory chemical stability.5 These AEMs are based on the triblock copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-polystyrene (SEBS), and functionalized with various cationic groups.

We have recently undertaken dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to understand the morphology of SEBS systems functionalized with tetra alkyl ammonium groups. DPD, a mesoscale simulation technique, enables relatively large time length scales (m seconds and > 40 nm) to be examined.6,7 This permits the determination of the morphology of sufficiently large systems at acceptable computational expense. The SEBS polymer was coarse-grained in to DPD beads, balancing both chemical distinction and fine structural variants. The optimized structure and the interaction parameters of these beads were calculated by using a recently developed methodology employing DFT based electronic structure calculations.8,9 The morphology of the these AEMs were simulated at different degrees of hydration. The result shows that the morphology qualitatively changes (from perforated and interconnected lamellae to perfect lamellae and then to disordered bicontinuous domains) as the hydration level is increased from 4 to 20. The effects of the alkyl chain tethered to the cation group, the ion exchange capacity, and the copolymer composition were also investigated.

References

(1) Couture, G.; Alaaeddine, A.; Boschet, F.; Ameduri, B. Polymeric Materials as Anion-Exchange Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2011, 36 (11), 1521–1557.

(2) Varcoe, J. R.; Atanassov, P.; Dekel, D. R.; Herring, A. M.; Hickner, M. A.; Kohl, P. A.; Kucernak, A. R.; Mustain, W. E.; Nijmeijer, K.; Scott, K.; et al. Anion-Exchange Membranes in Electrochemical Energy Systems. Energy Environ. Sci. 2014, 7, 3135–3191.

(3) Li, N.; Guiver, M. D. Ion Transport by Nanochannels in Ion-Containing Aromatic Copolymers. Macromolecules 2014, 47 (7), 2175–2198.

(4) Marino, M. G.; Melchior, J. P.; Wohlfarth, A.; Kreuer, K. D. Hydroxide, Halide and Water Transport in a Model Anion Exchange Membrane. J. Memb. Sci. 2014, 464, 61–71.

(5) Mohanty, A. D.; Ryu, C. Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Bae, C. Stable Elastomeric Anion Exchange Membranes Based on Quaternary Ammonium-Tethered Polystyrene-B-Poly(ethylene-Co-Butylene)-B-Polystyrene Triblock Copolymers. Macromolecules 2015, 48 (19), 7085–7095.

(6) Groot, R. D.; Warren, P. B. Dissipative Particle Dynamics: Bridging the Gap between Atomistic and Mesoscopic Simulation. J. Chem. Phys. 1997, 107 (11), 4423.

(7) Espanol, P. Hydrodynamics from Dissipative Particle Dynamics. Phys. Rev. E 1995, 52 (2), 1734–1742.

(8) Sepehr, F. Morphology of Elastomeric Anion Exchange Membranes: A Dissipative Particle Dynamics Study. In PRiME 2016/230th ECS Meeting (October 2-7, 2016); 2016.

(9) Sepehr, F.; Paddison, S. J. Dissipative Particle Dynamics Interaction Parameters from Ab Initio Calculations. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2016, 645, 20–26.

A convenient and realistic ex-situ method for determining the degradation rate of hydroxide-exchange-membranes (HEM) for  fuel cell applications

Klaus-Dieter Kreuer1 and Patric Jannasch2

1 Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

2 Department of Chemistry, Polymer & Materials Chemistry, Lund University, SE-22 100 Lund, Sweden

kreuer@fkf.mpg.de

The application of anion exchange membranes (AEM) in their hydroxide (OH) form (sometimes denoted by HEM) as separators in low temperature fuel cells is a matter of ongoing research. OH conductivity close to the proton conductivity of PEMs (such as the well-established Nafion®)  are quite common [i] for high levels of hydration, and the reactivity of OH with CO2 in air (used as oxidant in fuel cells) may be managed.

The major problem which remains to be solved steams from the mandatory presence of highly nucleophilic hydroxide as conducting ion. OH tends to react with quaternized ammonium (QA) groups which are commonly used as positive ionic counter-charge within the polymeric structure. As typical leaving groups in organic chemistry, QAs are well known to react with OH through nucleophilic substitution, b-elimination, and rearrangement reactions such as Stevens rearrangement in the absence of b-protons.  As a consequence, HEMs inherently degrade while losing their ion exchange capacity (IEC) and, as a consequence, also their ionic conductivity.[ii],[iii],[iv], [v],[vi],[vii]

The degradation rate not only depends on the kind of QAs but also on its environment within the polymeric structure. In order to remove this complexity, we had therefore studied the degradation rates of a series of QA-salts in concentrated aqueous solutions of NaOH in order to identify suitable candidates for ionic groups in HEMs.[viii] However, these conditions differ from the conditions provided by aqueous solution of NaOH (KOH) in various ways: i) within a HEM, OHcounter ions are consumed in degradation reactions while the concentration (activity) of OH in excess NaOH solution is virtually unaffected by membrane degradation.   ii) For high molarity, significant co-ion uptake (which corresponds to an uptake of excess NaOH) may affect the degradation rate through the presence of Na+ in the membrane. iii) Even for high NaOH molarity, the molar ratio [H2O]/[OH] may be higher than for the low hydration conditions which may occur in running fuel cells. Especially the cathode side is expected to dry out as a result of electroosmotic water drag from the cathode to the anode side especially at high ionic (OH) current density. Since ion solvation (kind of solvent and degree of hydration) is known to heavily affect degradation rates,9 low hydration levels must be put into effect in meaningful HEM degradation studies. In this work, we therefore present a convenient method which allows following HEM degradation at controlled temperature and hydration level. It is making use of a thermal gravimetric analysis technique, which allows recording sample weights under controlled T/RH (relative humidity) conditions.[ix] If commonly accepted, this method may help to resolve the debate about relative durability of hydroxide-exchange-membranes currently developed in many laboratories.

[i] M. G. Marino, J. P. Melchior, A. Wohlfarth,  K. D. Kreuer Journal of Membrane Science 464, 61–71 (2014).

[ii] Y. Ye, Y. A. Elabd, Chemical Stability of Anion Exchange Membranes for Alkaline  Fuel Cells, Chap. 15,233 –251. URL http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bk-2012-1096.ch014.

[iii] T. Sata, M. Tsujimoto, T. Yamaguchi, K. Matsusaki, J. Membr. Sci. 1996, 112, 161– 170.

[iv] G. Couture, A. Alaaeddine, F. Boschet, B. Ameduri, Prog. Polym. Sci. 2011, 36, 1521 –1557.

[v] G. Merle, M. Wessling, K. Nijmeijer, J. Membr. Sci. 2011, 377, 1 –35.

[vi] C. G. Arges, J. Parrondo, G. Johnson, A. Nadhan, V. Ramani, J. Mater. Chem. 2012, 22, 3733 –3744.

[vii] D. Chen, M. A. Hickner, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2012, 4, 5775 –5781.

[viii] M. G. Marino, K. D. Kreuer ChemSusChem 8(3), 513–523 (2015).

[ix] K. D. Kreuer  Solid State Ionics 252, 93–101 (2013).

Heterogeneous water transport across nanoscale water channels in Nafion®

Xiao Ling, Mischa Bonn, Sapun H Parekh, Katrin F Domke

Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research,
Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany
ling@mpip-mainz.mpg.de

Due to its superior proton transport properties, Nafion is widely used for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications. The unique nanoscale structure and chemistry of the ionic channels determine the membrane water transport properties[1] that, in turn, underlie the proton transport and thus fuel cell efficiency. As such, insights into the structure and transport of water across Nafion are quintessential for optimizing membrane properties that regulate PEMFC performance. Here, we make use of the millisecond temporal and molecular chemical resolution of advanced nonlinear Raman spectroscopy (CARS) to probe the water diffusivity of Nafion® in situ in real time. We find that two distinct subspecies of water exist in Nafion®: bulk-like and non-bulk-like water[1]. Interestingly, the two species show distinct diffusion behavior where the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of non-bulk water is significantly larger than that of bulk-like water. We speculate that the physico-chemical nature of faster transport of non-bulk-like water compared to bulk-like water results from confined 1-D water wires formed near the surface of the ionic channels; such molecularly confined water has been shown to exhibit substantially enhanced diffusivity compared to bulk-like water [2]. When comparing two different Nafion® membranes with different water channel structures – but the same polymer precursor – we observe the same ADC for the two water sub-species in both membranes while the overall macroscopically observed water transport properties are different. The Nafion® membrane with the larger fraction of non-bulk-like water exhibits accelerated overall transport. This suggests that maximizing the amount of non-bulk-like water is critical to achieving the fastest transport of water, and of protons, through a PEMFC.

Fig. 1. Left: Schematic of CARS setup to probe water transport in Nafion. Right: Decomposition of OH peak in bulk water (blue) and non-bulk water (orange), plus an intermediate water subspecies of HOD (cyan); black lines represent regression of the data to a 1-D solution to Fick’s second law.
1. X. Ling, M. Bonn, S.H. Parekh, K.F. Domke, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2016, 55, 4011-4015
2. R.H. Tunuguntla, F.I.Allen, K.Kim, A.Belliveau, A. Noy, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2016, 11, 639-644

17:25 | Closing Words

18:00 | Guided City Tour

Partners

Organising Committee

Dr. Alexander Dyck – NEXT ENERGY · EWE Research Centre for Energy Technology (Germany)
Dr. Dirk Henkensmeier – Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST, South Korea)
Prof. Artur Michalak – Jagiellonian University in Krakow (Poland)

Registration

The participation fee of 380 € is payable after receipt of invoice. For registration please complete the “Workshop Registration Form” and submit it by fax or email to NEXT ENERGY by June 1st 2017.

Due to the limited number of participants, registrations are considered in order of receipt.

NEXT ENERGY
EWE-Forschungszentrum für Energietechnologie e. V.
Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 15 | 26129 Oldenburg | Germany
Phone: +49 441 99906-362
Fax: +49 441 99906-109
Email: EMEA@next-energy.de

Venue

The spa town Bad Zwischenahn is located in the north-west of Germany and is a famous recreational area because of its colorful flowering rhododendron shrubs and park-like landscape. The city can be reached conveniently by train or by car. Bremen Airport is located nearby.

The Workshop will be held at the conference and golfing hotel “Hansens Haus am Meer“, which is located directly in the spa gardens at the lake “Zwischenahner Meer”, the third largest lake in Lower Saxony.

emea2017_venue_1
emea2017_venue_2
emea2017_venue_3

Accommodation

Bad Zwischenahn has a range of hotels in a variety of price categories. Rooms can also be booked at the conference hotel „Hansens Haus am Meer“.

If you are interested in booking a room in the conference hotel for your overnight stay in Bad Zwischenahn, you can do so by writing an email directly to the hotel. Please refer to the workshop when booking.

Hansens Haus am Meer Hotel
Auf dem Hohen Ufer 25
26160 Bad Zwischenahn, Germany
Phone: +49 4403 940-0
Email: rezeption@hausammeer.de
www.hausammeer.de

Travel

By Plane:
The nearest international airport is Bremen, which is 60 km from Bad Zwischenahn.

By Train:
Bad Zwischenahn has a train station that is served by trains from the rail transport providers “Deutsche Bahn” (www.bahn.de) and “Regio-S-Bahn” (www.regiosbahn.de).

The “Hansens Haus am Meer” hotel offers a free shuttle service from the train station to the hotel on request.

By Car:
Coming from Bremen (A28):
Follow the A28 autobahn in the directions for Oldenburg / Emden / Leer. In Oldenburg, at the interchange “Oldenburg West“ continue to Emden / Leer on the A28. Leave the autobahn at the exit ramp No. 9 “Neuenkruge” and follow the road signposts to Bad Zwischenahn.

Coming from Leer / Netherlands (A31):
Change to the A31 autobahn at the “Leer” junction and follow the A28 in the direction for Oldenburg. Leave the autobahn at the exit ramp No. 8 “Zwischenahner Meer” and follow the road signs to Bad Zwischenahn.

Information

The conference fee of 380 € includes the lab tour, lunch and coffee breaks on both days as well as the get-together on Monday evening and the conference dinner on Tuesday evening and the VAT. Also covered is the bus transfer to the NEXT ENERGY research centre.

NEXT ENERGY – EWE-Forschungszentrum für Energietechnologie e. V. may charge an administration fee of 70.00 € for any change or cancellation of registration. Cancellation must be received by NEXT ENERGY in writing up until seven days prior to the event. Cancellations received after this date will be charged the full fee.

The program is subject to amendment. In the unlikely event of it being cancelled for reasons beyond the control of NEXT ENERGY, registration fees already paid will be refunded.

If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. Workshop contact: Jocelyne Hansen –phone: +49 441 99906-362 – e-mail: EMEA@next-energy.de